TVM documentation loosely follows the formal documentation style described by Divio. This system has been chosen because it is a “simple, comprehensive and nearly universally-applicable scheme. It is proven in practice across a wide variety of fields and applications.”

This document describes the organization of TVM documentation, and how to write new documentation. See docs/ for instructions on building the docs.

The Four Document Types

Introductory Tutorials

These are step by step guides to introduce new users to a project. An introductory tutorial is designed to get a user engaged with the software without necessarily explaining why the software works the way it does. Those explanations can be saved for other document types. An introductory tutorial focuses on a successful first experience. These are the most important docs to turning newcomers into new users and developers. A fully end-to-end tutorial — from installing TVM and supporting ML software, to creating and training a model, to compiling to different architectures — will give a new user the opportunity to use TVM in the most efficient way possible. A tutorial teaches a beginner something they need to know. This is in contrast with a how-to, which is meant to be an answer to a question that a user with some experience would ask.

Tutorials need to be repeatable and reliable, because the lack of success means a user will look for other solutions.

How-to Guides

These are step by step guides on how to solve particular problems. The user can ask meaningful questions, and the documents provide answers. An examples of this type of document might be, “how do I compile an optimized model for ARM architecture?” or “how do I compile and optimize a TensorFlow model?” These documents should be open enough that a user could see how to apply it to a new use case. Practical usability is more important than completeness. The title should tell the user what problem the how-to is solving.

How are tutorials different from how-tos? A tutorial is oriented towards the new developer, and focuses on successfully introducing them to the software and community. A how-to, in contrast, focuses on accomplishing a specific task within the context of basic understanding. A tutorial helps to on-board and assumes no prior knowledge. A how-to assumes minimum knowledge, and is meant to guide someone to accomplish a specific task.


Reference documentation describes how the software is configured and operated. APIs, key functions, commands, and interfaces are all candidates for reference documentation. These are the technical manuals that let users build their own interfaces and programs. They are information oriented, focused on lists and descriptions. You can assume that the audience has a grasp on how the software works and is looking for specific answers to specific questions. Ideally, the reference documentation should have the same structure as the code base and be generated automatically as much as possible.

Architecture Guides

Architecture Guides are explanations are background material on a topic. These documents help to illuminate and understand the application environment. Why are things the way they are? What were the design decisions, what alternatives were considered, what are the RFCs describing the existing system? This includes academic papers and links to publications relevant to the software. Within these documents you can explore contradictory and conflicting position, and help the reader make sense of how and why the software was built the way it is. It’s not the place for how-tos and descriptions on how to accomplish tasks. They instead focus on higher level concepts that help with the understanding of the project. Generally these are written by the architects and developers of the project, but can useful to help both users and developers to have a deeper understanding of why the software works the way it does, and how to contribute to it in ways that are consistent with the underlying design principles.

Special considerations for TVM

The TVM community has some special considerations that require deviation from the simple docs style outlined by Divio. The first consideration is that there is frequently overlap between the user and developer communities. Many projects document the developer and user experience with separate systems, but it is appropriate to consider both in this system, with differentiations where appropriate. As a result the tutorials and how-tos will be divided between “User Guides” that focus on the user experience, and “Developer Guides” that focus on the developer experience.

The next consideration is that there are special topics within the TVM community that benefit from additional attention. These topics include, but are not limited to, microTVM and VTA. Special “Topic Guides” can be created to index existing material, and provide context on how to navigate that material most effectively.

To facilitate newcomers, a special “Getting Started” section with installation instructions, a overview of why to use TVM, and other first-experience documents will be produced.

Technical Details

We use the Sphinx for the main documentation. Sphinx supports both reStructuredText and markdown. When possible, we encourage reStructuredText as it has richer features. Note that the Python doc-string and tutorials allow you to embed reStructuredText syntax.

See docs/ for instructions on building the docs.

Python Reference Documentation

We use the numpydoc format to document the function and classes. The following snippet gives an example docstring. We always document all the public functions, when necessary, provide an usage example of the features we support (as shown below).

def myfunction(arg1, arg2, arg3=3):
    """Briefly describe my function.

    arg1 : Type1
        Description of arg1

    arg2 : Type2
        Description of arg2

    arg3 : Type3, optional
        Description of arg3

    rv1 : RType1
        Description of return type one

    .. code:: python

        # Example usage of myfunction
        x = myfunction(1, 2)
    return rv1

Be careful to leave blank lines between sections of your documents. In the above case, there has to be a blank line before Parameters, Returns and Examples in order for the doc to be built correctly. To add a new function to the docs, we need to add the sphinx.autodoc rules to docs/reference/api/python). You can refer to the existing files under this folder on how to add the functions.

C++ Reference Documentation

We use the doxygen format to document c++ functions. The following snippet shows an example of c++ docstring.

 * \brief Description of my function
 * \param arg1 Description of arg1
 * \param arg2 Descroption of arg2
 * \returns describe return value
int myfunction(int arg1, int arg2) {
  // When necessary, also add comment to clarify internal logics

Besides documenting function usages, we also highly recommend contributors to add comments about code logics to improve readability.

Refer to Another Location in the Document

Please use sphinx’s :ref: markup to refer to another location in the same doc.

.. _document-my-section-tag

My Section

You can use :ref:`document-my-section-tag` to refer to My Section.

Documents with Images / Figures

reStructuredText’s figure and image elements allow a document to include an image URL.

Image files created for TVM documentation should reside in the repository, while the .rst files using those images should reside in the main TVM repostitory (

This will require two Github Pull Requests, one for the image files and another for the .rst files. Discussion between the contributor and reviewers may be necessary to coordinate the review process.

IMPORTANT NOTE: When using two Pull Requests as described above, please merge the Pull Request in before merging the Pull Request in This helps ensure that all URL links in TVM’s online documentation are valid.